Above all, Socrates now resumes the issue of communication in a more radical manner.
Bribery A bribe is a payment given personally to a government official in exchange of his use of official powers. Bribery requires two participants: Either may initiate the corrupt offering; for example, a customs official may demand bribes to let through allowed or disallowed goods, or a smuggler might offer bribes to gain passage.
In some countries the culture of corruption extends to every aspect of public life, making it extremely difficult for individuals to stay in business without resorting to bribes. Bribes may be demanded in order for an official to do something he is already paid to do. They may also be demanded in order to bypass laws and regulations.
In addition to using bribery for private financial gain, they are also used to intentionally and maliciously cause harm to another i. In some developing nations, up to half of the population has paid bribes during the past 12 months.
Active bribery can be defined for instance as the promising, offering or giving by any person, directly or indirectly, of any undue advantage [to any public official], for himself or herself or for anyone else, for him or her to act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her functions.
Passive bribery can be defined as the request or receipt [by any public official], directly or indirectly, of any undue advantage, for himself or herself or for anyone else, or the acceptance of an offer or a promise of such an advantage, to act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her functions article 3 of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption ETS The reason for this dissociation is to make the early steps offering, promising, requesting an advantage of a corrupt deal already an offence and, thus, to give a clear signal from a criminal policy point of view that bribery is not acceptable.
Besides, such a dissociation makes the prosecution of bribery offences easier since it can be very difficult to prove that two parties the bribe-giver and the bribe-taker have formally agreed upon a corrupt deal.
Besides, there is often no such formal deal but only a mutual understanding, for instance when it is common knowledge in a municipality that to obtain a building permit one has to pay a "fee" to the decision maker to obtain a favourable decision.
For the purpose of this Convention, "corruption" means requesting, offering, giving or accepting, directly or indirectly, a bribe or any other undue advantage or prospect thereof, which distorts the proper performance of any duty or behaviour required of the recipient of the bribe, the undue advantage or the prospect thereof.
Governmental corruption of judiciary Edit Governmental corruption of judiciary includes governmental spending on the courts, which is completely financially controlled by the executive in many transitional and developing countries.
This undermines the principle of checks and balances and creates a critical financial dependence on the judiciary. It covers latent governmental spending on the judiciary in the form of privileges — cars, country houses, expenses.
Such a system is completely outside the realm of transparency and creates a precedent for the corruption of the judiciary by executive authorities. The difference with bribery is that this is a tri-lateral relation. It can be difficult to make a distinction between this form of corruption and certain forms of extreme and poorly regulated lobbying where for instance law- or decision-makers can freely "sell" their vote, decision power or influence to those lobbyists who offer the highest retribution, including where for instance the latter act on behalf of powerful clients such as industrial groups who want to avoid the passing of certain environmental, social, or other regulations perceived as too stringent, etc.
Where lobbying is sufficiently regulated, it becomes possible to provide for a distinctive criteria and to consider that trading in influence involves the use of "improper influence", as in article 12 of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption ETS of the Council of Europe.
Patronage Patronage refers to favoring supporters, for example with government employment. This may be legitimate, as when a newly elected government changes the top officials in the administration in order to effectively implement its policy.
It can be seen as corruption if this means that incompetent persons, as a payment for supporting the regime, are selected before more able ones.
In nondemocracies many government officials are often selected for loyalty rather than ability. They may be almost exclusively selected from a particular group for example, Sunni Arabs in Saddam Hussein 's Iraq, the nomenklatura in the Soviet Unionor the Junkers in Imperial Germany that support the regime in return for such favors.
A similar problem can also be seen in Eastern Europe, for example in Romania, where the government is often accused of patronage when a new government comes to power, in a few months time it changed most of the officials in the public sector.
Nepotism and cronyism Main articles: Nepotism and Cronyism Favoring relatives nepotism or personal friends cronyism of an official is a form of illegitimate private gain. This may be combined with briberyfor example demanding that a business should employ a relative of an official controlling regulations affecting the business.
The most extreme example is when the entire state is inherited, as in North Korea or Syria. A milder form of cronyism is an " old boy network ", in which appointees to official positions are selected only from a closed and exclusive social network — such as the alumni of particular universities — instead of appointing the most competent candidate.
Seeking to harm enemies becomes corruption when official powers are illegitimately used as means to this end. For example, trumped-up charges are often brought up against journalists or writers who bring up politically sensitive issues, such as a politician's acceptance of bribes.
In the Indian political system, leadership of national and regional parties are passed from generation to generation creating a system in which a family holds the center of power, some examples are most of the dravidian parties of south India and also the largest party in India - Congress.
Electoral fraud Main article: Electoral fraud Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. Acts of fraud affect vote counts to bring about an election result, whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.
Also called voter fraud, the mechanisms involved include illegal voter registration, intimidation at polls, and improper vote counting.Political corruption is the use of power by government officials for illegitimate private gain. An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if the act is directly.
A state of unrestrained political corruption is known as a kleptocracy, literally meaning "rule by thieves". Some forms of corruption – now called "institutional corruption"  – are distinguished from bribery and other kinds of obvious personal gain.
In the Cambridge English Dictionary, a Kleptocracy is defined as a society whose leaders make themselves rich by stealing from the rest of the people. Wikipedia says a state of unrestrained political corruption is known as a Kleptocracy, literally meaning rule by thieves.
Worldwide, bribery alone is estimated to involve over 1 trillion US dollars annually. A state of unrestrained political corruption is known as a kleptocracy, literally meaning "rule by thieves".
Read more about this topic: Politics. Other articles related to "political corruption, corruption, political ". A state of unrestrained political corruption is known as a kleptocracy, literally meaning "rule by thieves". Jul 23, · A prosecutor without empathy and a bold female police are taking a murder case involving unrestrained political corruption.
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