In the social sciences, proponents of qualitative research argued that the scientific method was not an appropriate model for studying people eg, Cicourel, 1 Schutz, 23 and Garfinkel 4and such methods as observation and interviewing would lead to a better understanding of social life in its naturally occurring, uncontrolled form. Biomedical and clinical research, with deep historical roots in quantitative methods, particularly observational epidemiology 5 and clinical trials, 6 was on the periphery of this debate. It was not until the late s and s that anthropologists and sociologists began introducing qualitative research methods into the health care field.
Describing and interpreting a cultural and social group Case Study Developing an in-depth analysis of a single case or multiple cases Gall, Borg, and Gall defined qualitative research as the "inquiry that is grounded in the assumption that individuals construct social reality in the form of individuals construct social reality in the form of meanings and interpretations, and that these constructions tend to be transitory and situational.
The dominant methodology is to discover these meanings and interpretations by studying cases intensively in natural settings an subjecting the resulting data to analytical induction.
The purpose of a qualitative research is not to verify a causal relationship by falsifying a no-relationship hypothesis. Instead, it recognizes the multifaceted interpretations of human experience, and the iterative relation within social and cultural systems.
The focus of a qualitative research is on understanding how people make sense of their world with exploitation of different aspects and different expressions. It provides both the researchers and the participants with a discovering experience. What are the characteristics of qualitative research?
Denzin and Lincoln used a metaphor of bricoleur as researcher and bricololage as a solution using different tools in qualitative research: It sheds light on the nature of "emergent construction" in qualitative research.
Creswell gave his reasons why to undertake a qualitative study: It derives from the nature of the research question: Quantitative research is designed to verify theoretical hypotheses about a casual relationship among certain variables; thus, the questions are usually framed to examine whether a certain condition exists to test the plausibility of a theoretical explanation of why.
On the contrary, qualitative research pursues what and how questions to get a deeper understanding of an observed phenomenon. Denzin and Lincolndivided the history of qualitative research into five phases in the 20th century: Crisis of Representation mids: The questions include whether the qualitative researchers can directly capture lived experience, and how qualitative studies to be evaluated in the poststructural moment.
What are the criteria to judge the value of the research? In quantitative research, reliability, validity, generalizability and objectivity are the criteria. In qualitative study, Rossman and Rallis makes the judgment in terms of the following principles: The truth value of the research: Five strategies are suggested to obtain this truthfulness: Gather data over a period of time or intensively rather than in a one-shot manner Share the interpretations of the emerging findings with participants Design the study as participatory or action research from beginning to end Triangulate, i.
The rigor of the research: In qualitative research, it is the thinking process of the researcher that really matters. Was the study well conceived and conducted?
Are the decisions clear?
Was sufficient evidence gathered and presented? Was the researcher rigorous in searching for alternative explanations for what was learned?
Are different interpretations put forward and assessed? The significance of the research, i. The function of triangulation is to locate and reveal the understanding of the object under investigation from "different aspects of empirical reality" Denzin, Denzin has identified four basic types of triangulation: Checking out the consistency of different data sources, i.
For example, compare observational data with the interview data; compare what people say in public with what they say in private; check for consistency of what people say about the same thing over time; compare the perspectives of people from different points of view.
However, such comparison does not always mean to find the consistency. Instead, sometimes it helps to study and to understand when and why there are differences. Using several different researchers or evaluators to review the findings in order to reduce potential bias.
Using multiple perspectives or theories to interpret the data, i. Checking out the consistency of findings generated by different data-collection method The issues for qualitative research are more about transferability, faithfulness, and dependability rather than reliability and validity.
As a qualitative researcher, your job is to give thick descriptions so that readers are able to make decisions to see whether the results of the inquiry are transferable.
The conceptual analysis must be faithfully derived from the data and be checked out against the consistency of different data sources.relative validity index is use to automatically estimate the number of cluster, result will be display in dendrogram; results of dendrogram is useful for expert examiner.
KEYWORDS: Forensic analysis, clustering algorithms, text mining. For instance, imagine a study examining whether there is a relationship between the amount of training in a specific technology and subsequent rates of use of that technology. Because the interest is in a relationship, it is considered an issue of conclusion validity.
Jul 01, · Analysis. We read journal articles and book chapters and prepared notes recording the evaluative criteria that author(s) posited and the world view or belief system in which criteria were embedded, if available.
Methods, Qualitative OBSERVATION AND INTERVIEWING  METHODS OF ANALYSIS  RESEARCH VALIDITY, RELIABILITY, AND ETHICS  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Qualitative methodology is used by social scientists in the study of human behavior.
In quantitative research, reliability, validity, generalizability and objectivity are the criteria. In qualitative study, Rossman and Rallis () makes the judgment in terms of the following principles.
Fractured Science - Examining EPA's Approach to Ground Water Research: The Pavillion Analysis Wednesday, February 1, The Chair now recognizes Mr. Miller for five minutes of an opening statement. Mr. MILLER. Thank you, Chairman Harris. and repeatable science, along with critical analysis and full disclosure, and will lead to.