Many college entrance exams in the early s were specific to each school and required candidates to travel to the school to take the tests. The College Boarda consortium of colleges in the northeastern United States, was formed in to establish a nationally administered, uniform set of essay tests based on the curricula of the boarding schools that typically provided graduates to the colleges of the Ivy League and Seven Sistersamong others. Terman in particular thought that such tests could identify an innate " intelligence quotient " IQ in a person. The results of an IQ test could then be used to find an elite group of students who would be given the chance to finish high school and go on to college.
Definitions 2 Except as otherwise provided in this title, as used in this Act test 1, the following terms and their variant forms mean the following: The work includes the overall form as well as the arrangement and composition of spaces and elements in the design, but does not include individual standard features.
Such works shall include works of artistic craftsmanship insofar as their form but not their mechanical or utilitarian aspects are concerned; the design of a useful article, as defined in this section, shall be considered a pictorial, graphic, or sculptural work only if, and only to the extent that, such design incorporates pictorial, graphic, or sculptural features that can be identified separately from, and are capable of existing independently of, the utilitarian aspects of the article.
The offering to distribute copies or phonorecords to a group of persons for purposes of further distribution, public performance, or public display, constitutes publication. A public performance or display of a work does not of itself constitute publication.
A work of visual art does not include— A i any poster, map, globe, chart, technical drawing, diagram, model, applied art, motion picture or other audiovisual work, book, magazine, newspaper, periodical, data base, electronic information service, electronic publication, or similar publication; ii any merchandising item or advertising, promotional, descriptive, covering, or packaging material or container; iii any portion or part of any item described in clause i or ii ; B Act test 1 work made for hire; or C any work not subject to copyright protection under this title.
In determining whether any work is eligible to be considered a work made for hire under paragraph 2neither the amendment contained in section d of the Intellectual Property and Communications Omnibus Reform Act ofas enacted by section a 9 of Public Lawnor the deletion of the words added by that amendment— A shall be considered or otherwise given any legal significance, or B shall be interpreted to indicate congressional approval or disapproval of, or acquiescence in, any judicial determination, by the courts or the Copyright Office.
Paragraph 2 shall be interpreted as if both section 2 a 1 of the Work Made for Hire and Copyright Corrections Act of and section d of the Intellectual Property and Communications Omnibus Reform Act ofas enacted by section a 9 of Public Lawwere never enacted, and without regard to any inaction or awareness by the Congress at any time of any judicial determinations.
Subject matter of copyright: In general 28 a Act test 1 protection subsists, in accordance with this title, in original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device.
Works of authorship include the following categories: Compilations and derivative works a The subject matter of copyright as specified by section includes compilations and derivative works, but protection for a work employing preexisting material in which copyright subsists does not extend to any part of the work in which such material has been used unlawfully.
The copyright in such work is independent of, and does not affect or enlarge the scope, duration, ownership, or subsistence of, any copyright protection in the preexisting material. National origin 29 a Unpublished Works. Whenever the President finds that a particular foreign nation extends, to works by authors who are nationals or domiciliaries of the United States or to works that are first published in the United States, copyright protection on substantially the same basis as that on which the foreign nation extends protection to works of its own nationals and domiciliaries and works first published in that nation, the President may by proclamation extend protection under this title to works of which one or more of the authors is, on the date of first publication, a national, domiciliary, or sovereign authority of that nation, or which was first published in that nation.
The President may revise, suspend, or revoke any such proclamation or impose any conditions or limitations on protection under a proclamation.
For purposes of paragraph 2a work that is published in the United States or a treaty party within 30 days after publication in a foreign nation that is not a treaty party shall be considered to be first published in the United States or such treaty party, as the case may be.
Any rights in a work eligible for protection under this title that derive from this title, other Federal or State statutes, or the common law, shall not be expanded or reduced by virtue of, or in reliance upon, the provisions of the Berne Convention, or the adherence of the United States thereto.
Copyright in restored works 31 a Automatic Protection and Term. B Any work in which copyright is restored under this section shall subsist for the remainder of the term of copyright that the work would have otherwise been granted in the United States if the work never entered the public domain in the United States.
Acceptance of a notice by the Copyright Office is effective as to any reliance parties but shall not create a presumption of the validity of any of the facts stated therein. Service on a reliance party is effective as to that reliance party and any other reliance parties with actual knowledge of such service and of the contents of that notice.
In the event that notice is provided under both subparagraphs A and Bthe month period referred to in such subparagraphs shall run from the earlier of publication or service of notice. If the notice is signed by an agent, the agency relationship must have been constituted in a writing signed by the owner before the filing of the notice.
The Copyright Office may specifically require in regulations other information to be included in the notice, but failure to provide such other information shall not invalidate the notice or be a basis for refusal to list the restored work in the Federal Register. Notices of corrections for such minor errors or omissions shall be accepted after the period established in subsection d 2 A i.
Notices shall be published in the Federal Register pursuant to subparagraph B. B i The Register of Copyrights shall publish in the Federal Register, commencing not later than 4 months after the date of restoration for a particular nation and every 4 months thereafter for a period of 2 years, lists identifying restored works and the ownership thereof if a notice of intent to enforce a restored copyright has been filed.
C The Register of Copyrights is authorized to fix reasonable fees based on the costs of receipt, processing, recording, and publication of notices of intent to enforce a restored copyright and corrections thereto.
D i Not later than 90 days before the date the Agreement on Trade- Related Aspects of Intellectual Property referred to in section 15 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act enters into force with respect to the United States, the Copyright Office shall issue and publish in the Federal Register regulations governing the filing under this subsection of notices of intent to enforce a restored copyright.
If the notice is signed by an agent, the agency relationship must have been constituted in writing and signed by the owner before service of the notice. The President may revise, suspend, or revoke any such proclamation or impose any conditions or limitations on protection under such a proclamation.
United States Government works 37 Copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the United States Government, but the United States Government is not precluded from receiving and holding copyrights transferred to it by assignment, bequest, or otherwise.
Exclusive rights in copyrighted works 38 Subject to sections throughthe owner of copyright under this title has the exclusive rights to do and to authorize any of the following: Rights of certain authors to attribution and integrity 39 a Rights of Attribution and Integrity.
The authors of a joint work of visual art are coowners of the rights conferred by subsection a in that work. Such instrument shall specifically identify the work, and uses of that work, to which the waiver applies, and the waiver shall apply only to the work and uses so identified.Chemicals can be found in many of the products we use in our everyday lives.
Some chemicals pose risks to humans and the environment. Under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and the Pollution Prevention Act, EPA evaluates potential risks from new and existing chemicals and finds ways to prevent or reduce pollution before it gets into the environment.
ACT is a mission-driven nonprofit organization. Our insights unlock potential and create solutions for K education, college, and career readiness. NOTE - The FARSite is the authoritative source for the AFFARS only. The FARSite is only an electronic representation of the FAR and the other supplements.
The ACT test is a curriculum-based education and career planning tool for high school students that assesses the mastery of college readiness standards. Subject matter of copyright: National origin 29 (a) Unpublished Works.—The works specified by sections and , while unpublished, are subject to protection under this title without regard to the nationality or domicile of the author.
(b) Published Works.—The works specified by sections and , when published, are subject to protection under this title if—. ACT Reading Practice Test 1 Directions: The passage below is accompanied by several questions.
After reading the passage, choose the best answer to each of the ACT Reading practice questions.